Accountancy Project Materials



The main aim of this write up is to throw more light on the review of budgeting and budgetary control in a extracting industry. This research purely base on budget as an instrument of control in an organization and also as a means of highlighting the role of budget in any establishment and society at large. Data were collected for this research work were from both secondary and primary source. With the population of 180,questionnaire were administered and interview conducted for a sample size of 180 persons made up of staffs of the corporation .in any attempt to make the research meaningful and comprehensive the researcher has to divide the entire work into five chapters.which comprises of the deal with the introduction where the researcher give a brief discussion of the concept statement of problem, limitation and scope of the study.and also comprises of the literature review which deals with definitions of term classification, important of the subject matter “budget” with the following chapter deals on research methodology which explains the research design and also forms the basis for data collection. Also states the analysis and interpretation of data and also shows that the hypothesis was tested, the concluding chapter throws more light on the work by summarizing the work and given the recommendation.



Background to the Study

Today the importance of budgeting and budgetary control can never be over emphasized. Thus for survival of any oil cooperation, management need to embark on budget to effect proper planning and control. In this view, budgeting can be seen as a process of planning and control. Proper budgeting can never affect efficient plans of an organization without control. Control as it were is an important tool which must be priced to keep in check with the plans of the firms and for correction of any deviation from the stipulated plan of the organization in question. Hence a budgetary control comprises of both plan of operation with the scope of the plan. In pursuit to this, data were collected from journals and related works. In consequent writings it reviews the response of people and it was made known through questionnaires that the factors that affect the company’s profitability most in general economic conditions in the contrary as the people stated that cash budget is the best type of budget. For any cooperation such as multi-national oil company i.e. shell cooperation, would want to succeed it business executives must make use of budgetary control measure to avoid failure in business.
They are different classes and types of budget for different entities i.e. fixed budget, Flexible budget, Master budget, Zero budget and annual budget for government entities. It should be observed that whatever the class or structure of a budget they are used for maximizing managerial efficiency and also to ensure that the activities of the cooperation are not left to chance. In organization the introduction of budget and budgetary control systems compels members of the cooperation from the top hierarchy to the bottom to plan ahead this is undoubtedly paramount owing to the higher level of uncertainty facing present day managers and accountant. Budgets formulate expected performance and express managerial target which gives meaning and direction to the operation in an organization. Budgets are established to guide action within a defined period. At the end of the period the actual result are compared with the budgetary performance, any discrepancies otherwise known as variance is analyzed for the purpose of showing the cause of such discrepancy and initially informed decision to prevent re-occurrence. These variance that could be favorable are of importance to the day-to-day existence of any organization.
A budget is an agreed plan of action used to provide directions and coordination giving more structure to any organization as well as motivation of staff to achieve it basic objective performance management is described as the process of quantifying the efficiency and effectiveness of an action. To achieve performance manager or top executives have to be in control.

Types of Control arm referring to are;

1. Financial control

2. Budgetary control


Statement of Problem

Budget is a managerial aid to planning and controlling the operations of any cooperation, such as planning and controlling involve forecasting into the unforeseeable future an attempt to ensure that the organization is sustained, virtually in all organization managers and executives assumes managerial role of planning and controlling their operation with the use of budgeting techniques which enables them to stand the test of competition among other industries.
For these reason the researcher has carefully observed that the following problem would emerge in an organization and some of these problems arises from the following;

1) Budgetary control can be seen as pressure device imposed by management to attain its objectives thus resulting to

i. Bad labour relations.

ii. Inaccurate record keeping.

2) Departmental conflicts arises from

i. Disputes over resource allocation method.

ii. Department blaming each other if targeted objectives are not being attained.

iii. Conflicting objectives.

3) It’s difficult to reconcile personnel and individual cooperate goal.

4) Waste arises as managers adopt the view we had better spend it or we will lose it. This sometimes compelled with entire building in order to enhance the prestige of a department.

5) Managers may over estimate cost so that they will not be blamed in the future, should they over spend.

6) Organization activities will be characterized by painlessness event will be left to chance and the entire organization would lose directions which could result to organizational inefficiency.

7) They will be no yard-stick against which actual result can be measured and this management will be tempted to the complacent with any level of performance.

8) Activities will be sectional and unintegrated, they will be tendency for every part of the organization to formulate it own objectives, strategies and policies which will not in any long-term achieve the entire organization purpose, mission and objectives.

Objectives of the Study

It has been noted that budget are necessary tool to an efficient and effective planning process in an organization, the effectiveness of budget as a tool to management depends on whether the plans under the budget are well formulated. The objectives are essentially:

1) To investigate concisely the budgetary control of shell as a cooperation with the view of determining their efficacy in the managerial process of the company.

2) To find out the extent of use of budgeting as a tool for its managerial planning and control process.

3) To find out how budgeting is help in coordinating the activity of various department in the company.

Research Questions

Some basic researches questions are meant to be asked are as follows.

1) How can budgeting and budgetary control system be used to predict concisely the operations of the company and determining the efficacy of managerial process.

2) How far has budgeting and budgetary control system used as a tool for managerial planning and control process in extracting industry.

3) How can budgeting and budgetary control system coordinate the various activities of extracting industry thereby securing its operations?


Statement Of Hypothesis

The objectives of the study are to find out if persistent deviation of actual expenditure from budgeted expenditure constitutes inefficiency for the above purpose. The following hypothesis can be formulated;

Hypothesis One

H0: Budgeting control system is a not tool be used to predict concisely the operations of the company and determining the efficacy of its operations.

H1: Budgeting control system is a tool used to predict concisely the operations of the company and determining the efficacy of its operation.

Hypothesis Two

H0 : Budgeting control system cannot improve managerial planning and control process of the firm.

H1 : budgeting control system can improve managerial planning and control process of the firm.

Hypothesis Three

H0: Budgeting control systems do not coordinate the various activities of the organizational operations and securing it.

H1: Budgeting control system coordinates the various activities of the organizational operations and securing it.

Significance of The Study

It can be beneficial for the researcher that the study will be of the following;

1) That the management of shell Petroleum Company in Nigeria is aiding them to policies, the planning and controlling aspect of managerial
function will be clearly stated and understood as it is applicable to the cooperation for better achievement of its objectives.

2) That other cooperate individuals, agents, accountant, businessmen and women, government parastatal, and scholars who may be interested in these form of budgetary system of aforementioned company might make an objective use of it.

3) The study might show the effects of budget information’s to the cooperation and possibly the remedies and the impact it generate on these remedy to effect of the society in general.

4) The research work also gives a long way in increasingly the knowledge of students studying budget control system.

Scope of Study

The scope of the study is as follows:

1) The study is basically restricted to 2001-2005 operating and capital expenditure budget of entering shell cooperation.

2) The analysis made in this study was based on data made available to the researcher by the company’s staff and head of department and top executives of the firm in response to the researchers question that were administered.

3) The scope of theses study can only be limited to budgeting and budgetary control system of shell cooperation in Nigeria.

4) The study also investigates and evaluates budgeting and budgetary control measures in Nigeria i.e shell cooperation to its regards.


1) The reluctant nature of part of the company’s personnel in making data available for the purpose of the study, although the budgetary unit was of greater help, they were also constrained by the company’s rule and regulations that relate to the release of the information.

2) The researcher’s work was carried out along side with academic work this means sharing of the available time between the researcher’s work and other academic and non-academic work all the factor mentioned above restricted the researcher from covering large scope of the study as would have been desirable.

3) Budgetary control can result to short term analysis of the researchers decision to keep within its budget variation rather than the right long decision analysis which might exceed the budget variation.

4) Managers of the cooperation or top executives in the company can be too pre-occupied with the setting to focus on the realistic objectives of target performance and in acquiring better and more customers.


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